President Biden on Wednesday will sign a package of executive orders elevating climate change at every level of the federal government, a move that the administration says will put the United States on the path to reducing its share of emissions that are warming the planet.
Taking the first significant steps toward one of Mr. Bidenâs most contentious campaign promises, the orders will direct the secretary of the Interior Department âto pause on entering into new oil and natural gas leases on public lands and offshore waters to the extent possibleâ while beginning a ârigorous reviewâ of all existing fossil fuel leases and permitting practices, according to a fact sheet provided by the White House.
Federal agencies also will be ordered to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies âand identify new opportunities to spur innovation.â Overhauling the tax breaks â worth billions of dollars to the oil, coal and gas industries â to help pay for Mr. Bidenâs $2 trillion climate change plan was also a major campaign promise. Both plans are expected to face strong opposition in Congress.
Wednesdayâs executive orders also set broad new foreign policy goals, including specifying that climate change, for the first time, will be a core part of all foreign policy and national security decisions.
Oil and gas industry leaders signaled that many of Mr. Bidenâs plans would face steep opposition, while environmental groups called the changes long overdue, particularly after four years in which the Trump administration mocked climate science and eliminated virtually every tool the government had to tackle rising emissions.
âThis is the single biggest day for climate action in more than a decade,â said Gene Karpinski, president of the League of Conservation Voters.
At noon today, President Biden will have been in office for a week, and the split-screen between new and old that has defined the first days of his administration continues.
It is an image of a government trying to operate on three tracks at once: enacting a new administrationâs agenda, staffing the new administrationâs agencies and trying to punish a departed president whose supporters attacked the seat of that government just three weeks ago.
On Wednesday, Mr. Biden will deliver remarks about climate change and scientific integrity.
But the Senate has had to spend some time focused on the last administration. On Tuesday senators voted to proceed with its impeachment trial of former President Donald J. Trump over the objections of Republicans who had argued that it was unconstitutional to try him after he left office. The 55-to-45 vote was a short-term victory for supporters of impeachment, but it was also a strong indication that they were unlikely to find the 17 Republicans needed to convict Mr. Trump. Several Republicans who voted to uphold the constitutional challenge, which would have effectively killed the trial, rushed after the vote to clarify that they remained open-minded about the trial, which next convenes on Feb. 9.
In the same body on the same day, senators confirmed Antony J. Blinken as secretary of state by a vote of 78 to 22 and a committee heard testimony from Gov. Gina M. Raimondo of Rhode Island, Mr. Bidenâs nominee for commerce secretary. Vice President Kamala Harris also swore in Janet Yellen as Treasury secretary, and the presidentâs cabinet is taking shape. Ms. Harris will swear in Mr. Blinken at a ceremony on Wednesday morning.
And at the White House, Mr. Biden signed executive orders to end federal contracts with private prisons and to combat housing discrimination; spoke with President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia; and announced that his administration had reached a deal with Pfizer and Moderna to buy an additional 200 million coronavirus vaccine doses. That means the United States should have enough doses to vaccinate most Americans by the end of the summer, though obtaining enough and getting them into peopleâs arms are two very different tasks.
John Kerry, the new American envoy for climate change, has spent the last few days repeatedly telling world leaders that the United States is ready to help the world âraise ambitionâ to address global warming. Doing so, however, could mean big changes for Americaâs role in the world.
Foreign policy experts say that the Biden administrationâs efforts must extend far beyond rejoining the Paris agreement, the global pact by nearly 200 governments aimed at slowing climate change. Taking on climate change will require a reassessment of issues as broad as the United Statesâ priorities in the Arctic and helping fragile countries deal with the fallout of climate risks.
âIt changes defense posture, it changes foreign policy posture,â said John D. Podesta, a former Obama administration official. âIt begins to drive a lot of decision making in foreign policy, diplomacy and development policy.â
The first acknowledgment of that shift is expected on Wednesday, with the White House directing intelligence agencies to produce a National Intelligence Estimate on climate security, and telling the secretary of defense to do a climate risk analysis of the Pentagonâs facilities and installations.
âAddressing climate change can, and will be, a central pillar of the Biden administrationâs foreign policy,â said Meghan OâSullivan, who served as a deputy national security adviser under President George W. Bush and now leads the Geopolitics of Energy Project at the Harvard Kennedy School. âIt means infusing the issue of climate and environment into our trade policies, our foreign aid programs, our bilateral discussions and even our military readiness.â
As President Biden prepares on Wednesday to open an ambitious effort to confront climate change, powerful and surprising forces are arrayed at his back.
Automakers are coming to accept that much higher fuel economy standards are their future; large oil and gas companies have said some curbs on greenhouse pollution lifted by former President Donald J. Trump should be reimposed; shareholders are demanding corporations acknowledge and prepare for a warmer, more volatile future, and a youth movement is driving the Democratic Party to go big to confront the issue.
But what may well stand in the presidentâs way is political intransigence from senators in both parties. An evenly divided Senate has given enormous power to any single senator, and one in particular, Joe Manchin III of West Virginia, who will lead the Senate Energy Committee and who came to the Senate as a defender of his stateâs coal industry.
Mr. Biden has already staffed his government with more people concerned with climate change than any other president before him. On his first day in office, he rejoined the Paris agreement on climate change.
But during the campaign, he tried to walk a delicate line on fracking for natural gas, saying he would stop it on public lands but not on private property, where most of it takes place.
A suite of executive actions planned for Wednesday does include a halt to new oil and gas leases on federal lands and in federal waters, a move that is certain to rile industry. But that would not stop fossil fuel drilling. As of 2019, more than 26 million acres of United States land were already leased to oil and gas companies, and last year the Trump administration, in a rush to exploit natural resources hidden beneath publicly owned lands and waters, leased tens of thousands more.
If the administration honors those contracts, millions of publicly owned acres could be opened to fossil fuel extraction in the coming decade.
The real action will come when Mr. Biden moves forward with plans to reinstate and strengthen Obama-era regulations, repealed by the Trump administration, on the three largest sources of planet-warming greenhouse emissions: vehicles, power plants and methane leaks from oil and gas drilling wells.
It may take up to two years to put the new rules in place, and even then, without new legislation from Congress, a future administration could once again simply undo them.
President Bidenâs top coronavirus advisers â including Dr. Anthony S. Fauci and Dr. Rochelle P. Walensky, the new director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention â are holding their first public briefing on Wednesday, as the president has pledged to be more transparent about the administrationâs response.
Dr. Fauci, the infectious disease specialist who is now Mr. Bidenâs chief Covid-19 medical adviser, and Dr. Walensky were also joined by Jeffrey Zients, the entrepreneur and former Obama administration official who is coordinating the coronavirus response, and Dr. Marcella Nunez-Smith, who is heading a task force devoted to advancing racial equity in the effort to combat a disease that has disproportionately affected people of color.
The briefing comes as Mr. Biden is under intense pressure to speed up the pace of coronavirus vaccinations. A C.D.C. advisory committee is also meeting on Wednesday to discuss vaccine safety, as well as a new vaccine being developed by AstraZeneca.
On Tuesday, the president announced that his administration was nearing a deal to purchase an additional 200 million vaccine doses from the companies that already have emergency authorization, Moderna and Pfizer. The president said that would be enough for 300 million Americans to be vaccinated by the end of the summer. But with new and more infectious variants spreading, some experts say that will not be fast enough to curb the pandemic.
The replenishing over the summer â when the government was likely to run out of supply â was anticipated under contracts signed by the Trump administration, which gave the government options to continue increasing its commitments in increments of 100 million doses.
Mr. Biden also said that the administration would begin releasing 10 million vaccine doses each week to the states, up from 8.6 million. The 16 percent increase was expected as manufacturing capacity increases, but Mr. Biden also said he would give governors something they have been clamoring for: certainty about how much vaccine they will get. He said states will now have three weeks advance notice of their vaccine supplies.
The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said about 19.9 million people have received at least one dose of a Covid-19 vaccine, and that about 3.5 million people had been fully vaccinated. More than a million people a day, on average, have received a shot to help protect them against Covid-19 in the U.S. over the last week.
As the vaccine rollout accelerates, the number of daily new cases in the United States, which has the worst outbreak in the world, has been on the decline in recent weeks. U.S. deaths, though, remain high, numbering more than 3,000 per day on average in recent days.
Linda Thomas-Greenfield, President Bidenâs nominee for U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, is facing senators on Wednesday for her confirmation hearing, during which she called for re-engaging with the global body as a strategy to counter the rise of China.
Ms. Thomas-Greenfield, a veteran foreign service officer, said that China made significant diplomatic gains on the global stage during the Trump administration, which retreated from international alliances under an âAmerica Firstâ policy, and that she will reverse that trend and work to promote American values at the multilateral body if confirmed.
âWe know China is working across the U.N. system to drive an authoritarian agenda that stands in opposition to the founding values of the institution â American values,â Ms. Thomas-Greenfield said. âTheir success depends on our continued withdrawal. That will not happen on my watch.â
Ms. Thomas-Greenfieldâs nomination to the post was praised by veteran diplomats, who said her decades of experience as a foreign service officer would help rebuild Americaâs standing at the United Nations.
She talked about how her 35 years of diplomatic service, which ended in 2017 after former Secretary of State Rex W. Tillerson pushed her out of the department, will help guide her approach to the role.
âThroughout my career, from Jamaica to Nigeria, Pakistan to Switzerland, Iâve learned that effective diplomacy means more than shaking hands and staging photo ops,â Ms. Thomas-Greenfield said. âIt means developing real, robust relationships. It means finding common ground and managing points of differentiation. It means doing genuine, old-fashioned, people-to-people diplomacy.â
Ms. Thomas-Greenfield entered the foreign service in 1982 and held a range of senior positions in the State Department. She served as U.S. ambassador to Liberia from 2008 to 2012 before moving on to become the director general of the foreign service for about a year. From 2013 to 2017, she served as the top U.S. diplomat for African affairs.
Maria Elena Hernandez recently retrieved a flowery box tucked in her closet and dusted it off. For more than a decade, she has used it to store tax returns, lease agreements and other documents that she has collected to prove her familyâs long years of residence in the United States.
âWe have been waiting for the day when we can apply for legal status,â said Ms. Hernandez, 55, an undocumented immigrant from Mexico who arrived in this country with three small children in 2000. âIn this box is, hopefully, all the evidence weâll need.â
She had just learned of President Bidenâs plan to offer a pathway to U.S. citizenship for nearly 11 million undocumented people, announced as part of a sweeping proposal to overhaul the nationâs immigration system.
The bill would allow undocumented immigrants who were in the United States before Jan. 1, 2021, to apply for temporary legal status after passing background checks and paying taxes. As newly minted âlawful prospective immigrants,â they would be authorized to work, join the military and travel without fear of deportation. After five years, they could apply for green cards.
The presidentâs proposal would be perhaps the most ambitious immigration redesign passed since 1986, when President Ronald Reagan signed into law the Immigration Reform and Control Act, which legalized three million people.
Converting more than three times that many people into full citizens could open the door to one of the most significant demographic shifts in modern U.S. history, lifting millions out of the shadows and potentially into higher-paying jobs, providing them with welfare benefits, government IDs and Social Security eligibility and eventually creating millions of new voters.
âThis is the boldest immigration agenda any administration has put forward in generations,â said Muzaffar Chishti, a senior fellow at the Migration Policy Institute. âBut given that the Democrats have razor-thin majorities in Congress, the administration needs to have its expectations tempered.â Legalizing just one group at first â say, farmworkers â might be âmore realistic,â he said.
In a sign of the hurdles ahead, another one of Mr. Bidenâs early immigration initiatives, a 100-day freeze on deportations, was temporarily blocked by a federal judge on Tuesday after a lawsuit by the Texas attorney general, an advocate of the Trump administrationâs immigration crackdown.
Immigration reform has stalled in Congress time and again, primarily over what is widely known as amnesty. Despite beefed-up border enforcement and employer sanctions, Mr. Reaganâs immigration overhaul failed to curb the growth of the undocumented population.
While Congress has wrestled with how to change the immigration system, immigrants have continued to live, work and raise families in the United States.
The family of Denise Palagan, 27, came to the United States from the Philippines in 2002 after her father, a financial analyst, obtained an H-1B visa.
âThe Biden plan would fulfill our hope of keeping the family together,â said Ms. Palagan, who has two younger sisters, one of them born in the United States.
After the inauguration, Ms. Hernandez was at her dining room table thinking about the imminent birth of her second grandchild, who will be an American citizen. She and her husband planned to drive to Utah to meet the baby, and she worried about making a trip across state lines without legal status, lest law enforcement stop them.
When she learned that the president had unveiled a blueprint for legalization, she said, she was stunned at first. Then she went to retrieve the box of documents.
Jennifer M. Granholm, who faces a confirmation hearing Wednesday as President Bidenâs nominee to head the Department of Energy, is widely expected to play a central role in the administrationâs efforts to confront climate change.
But that raises a question: How much can an energy secretary realistically do to help reduce Americaâs planet-warming greenhouse gas emissions?
Only about one-fifth of the Energy Departmentâs $35 billion annual budget is devoted to energy programs. The rest goes toward maintaining the nationâs nuclear weapons arsenal, cleaning up environmental messes from the Cold War and conducting scientific research in areas like high-energy physics.
But the one-fifth slice of the department controls some powerful levers that could help advance clean-energy technologies, including a network of 17 national laboratories that conduct cutting-edge research, tens of billions of dollars in unused federal loan guarantees, and regulatory authority to encourage energy-efficient appliances and new transmission lines.
Representative Marjorie Taylor Greene, a first-term Georgia Republican, repeatedly endorsed executing top Democratic politicians on social media before she was elected to Congress, including telling a follower who asked if they could hang former President Barack Obama that the âstage is being set.â
A review of Ms. Greeneâs social media accounts, first reported by CNN, found that she repeatedly liked posts on Facebook that discussed the prospect of violence against Democratic lawmakers and employees of the federal government. Ms. Greene liked a Facebook comment in January 2019 that said âa bullet to the head would be quickerâ to remove Speaker Nancy Pelosi, and liked another about executing FBI agents.
After a Facebook follower asked Ms. Greene âNow do we get to hang them,â referring to Mr. Obama and Hillary Clinton, the former secretary of state and Democratic presidential nominee, Ms. Greene responded: âStage is being set. Players are being put in place. We must be patient. This must be done perfectly or liberal judges would let them off.â
In a lengthy statement posted to Twitter on Tuesday before CNN published its report, Ms. Greene did not disavow the posts, but accused CNN of âcoming afterâ her for political reasons and noted that several people had managed her social media accounts.
âOver the years, Iâve had teams of people manage my pages,â Ms. Greene wrote. âMany posts have been liked. Many posts have been shared. Some did not represent my views.â
Ms. Greene has previously been scrutinized for promoting conspiracy theories, including QAnon, the pro-Trump fringe group that falsely claims the existence of a satanic pedophile cult run by top Democrats, and for wrongly suggesting that the deadly school shooting in Parkland, Fla., was staged.
She has repeatedly suggested that Ms. Pelosi should be tried for treason for her refusal to support former President Donald J. Trumpâs immigration policies, emphasizing that treason is a crime punishable by death.
In the days before pro-Trump insurrectionists stormed the Capitol on Jan. 6, Ms. Greene referred to the day as Republicansâ â1776 moment.â After the riot, she pledged that Mr. Trump would âremain in officeâ and that attempts to remove him from the White House constituted âan attack on every American who voted for him,â even though he lost the election.
Ms. Greeneâs inflammatory rhetoric has drawn rebukes from some members of her own party. But since she joined Congress, House Republican leaders have declined to condemn her. Before she was elected, Representative Liz Cheney of Wyoming, the No. 3 House Republican, disavowed her comments as âoffensive and bigoted,â and Representative Steve Scalise of Louisiana, the No. 2 Republican, went so far as to back Ms. Greeneâs primary opponent.
After Ms. Greene arrived on Capitol Hill in November, Representative Kevin McCarthy of California, the minority leader, claimed that Ms. Greene had distanced herself from QAnon.
âSo the only thing I would ask for you in the press â these are new members,â Mr. McCarthy said. âGive them an opportunity before you claim what you believe they have done and what they will do.â
A spokesman for Mr. McCarthy told Axios that Ms. Greeneâs newly surfaced Facebook posts were âdeeply disturbingâ and that he planned to âhave a conversationâ with Ms. Greene about them.
For many of the rioters who stormed the Capitol on Jan. 6, it was not a large leap from a collection of conspiracy theories to âStop the Steal.â
There was the âPizzagateâ claim of 2016 that Democrats were running a child sex ring in the back of a popular Washington pizza parlor. And the debunked allegation that a low-level Democratic National Committee aide was murdered for leaking Hillary Clintonâs emails. And the theory that mass shootings, including the 2012 massacre at Sandy Hook Elementary School were false flag operations by liberals to promote gun control.
President Donald J. Trumpâs false claims of election fraud, which animated the riot, have reassembled a cast of conspiratorial theorizers that go way back, all of whom spread false theories about mass shootings and went on to embrace Mr. Trumpâs baseless fraud claims.
âIf you look at these Sandy Hook folks, itâs not like they slipped on a banana peel and believe in Sandy Hook conspiracy theories. This is an expression of a whole worldview, or an expression of personality traits,â Joe Uscinski, an assistant professor at the University of Miami and an author of the book âAmerican Conspiracy Theories,â said in an interview. âYouâre not going to change someoneâs mind. And even if you did, it wouldnât matter because youâre going to end up in a game of Whac-a-Mole.â
Dive into the background of the nine impeachment managers Speaker Nancy Pelosi chose to present the case to the Senate in the second impeachment trial of former President Donald J. Trump next month, and a common thread emerges: deep experience in the law.
Representative Jamie Raskin of Maryland will serve as lead impeachment manager. A graduate of Harvard Law School and a former constitutional law professor at American University, he has become known among House Democrats as a go-to expert on constitutional law. Representative Diana DeGette of Colorado was a civil rights lawyer before she was elected to the House in 1996. Representative David Cicilline of Rhode Island was a public defender in the District of Columbia before he joined the House. Representative Joaquin Castro of Texas, a Harvard-educated lawyer, worked in private practice before his days in Congress.
Representative Eric Swalwell of California has helped review evidence against Mr. Trump during the first impeachment and will lean on his experience as a former prosecutor in his role as an impeachment manager. Representative Ted Lieu of California, who drafted the impeachment article along with Mr. Cicilline and Mr. Raskin, has a law degree from Georgetown University.
Delegate Stacey Plaskett of the Virgin Islands previously served as an assistant district attorney in the Bronx and as a political appointee to the Justice Department. Representative Joe Neguse of Colorado is a graduate of the University of Colorado Law School and served on the universityâs Board of Regents. Representative Madeleine Dean of Pennsylvania has a law degree from Widener University and had a private law practice before becoming a university professor and joining the House.